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In recent years our usage and understanding of different types of energy has grown at a "This six-volume encyclopedia is a timely information resource as rising Hardcover: pages; Publisher: Elsevier Science; 1 edition (April 1, ).
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- Encyclopedia of Energy : Six -Volume Set
- Infobase Publishing - Encyclopedia of Careers and Vocational Guidance, 17th Edition, 6-Volume Set
It is expensive to produce a completely new edition of the Britannica , [a] and its editors delay for as long as fiscally sensible usually about 25 years. When American physicist Harvey Einbinder detailed its failings in his book, The Myth of the Britannica ,  the encyclopaedia was provoked to produce the 15th edition, which required 10 years of work. In an inaccurate entry about the Irish civil war was discussed in the Irish press following a decision of the Department of Education and Science to pay for online access.
Writing about the 3rd edition — , Britannica ' s chief editor George Gleig observed that "perfection seems to be incompatible with the nature of works constructed on such a plan, and embracing such a variety of subjects. With regard to errors in general, whether falling under the denomination of mental, typographical or accidental, we are conscious of being able to point out a greater number than any critic whatever.
Men who are acquainted with the innumerable difficulties attending the execution of a work of such an extensive nature will make proper allowances.
To these we appeal, and shall rest satisfied with the judgment they pronounce. Since the early s, the company has promoted spin-off reference works. The Britannica has been issued in 15 editions, with multi-volume supplements to the 3rd and 4th editions see the Table below. The 5th and 6th editions were reprints of the 4th, the 10th edition was only a supplement to the 9th, just as the 12th and 13th editions were supplements to the 11th.
The 15th underwent massive re-organization in , but the updated, current version is still known as the 15th. The 14th and 15th editions were edited every year throughout their runs, so that later printings of each were entirely different from early ones. Throughout history, the Britannica has had two aims: to be an excellent reference book, and to provide educational material. In the first era 1st—6th editions, — , the Britannica was managed and published by its founders, Colin Macfarquhar and Andrew Bell , by Archibald Constable , and by others.
It went on sale December The Britannica of this period was primarily a Scottish enterprise, and it is one of the most enduring legacies of the Scottish Enlightenment.
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Although some contributors were again recruited through friendships of the chief editors, notably Macvey Napier , others were attracted by the Britannica's reputation. The contributors often came from other countries and included the world's most respected authorities in their fields.
A general index of all articles was included for the first time in the 7th edition, a practice maintained until Production of the 9th edition was overseen by Thomas Spencer Baynes , the first English-born editor-in-chief. Dubbed the "Scholar's Edition", the 9th edition is the most scholarly of all Britannicas.
Encyclopedia of Energy : Six -Volume Set
In the third era 10th—14th editions, — , the Britannica was managed by American businessmen who introduced direct marketing and door-to-door sales. The American owners gradually simplified articles, making them less scholarly for a mass market. The 10th edition was a nine-volume supplement to the 9th, but the 11th edition was a completely new work, and is still praised for excellence; its owner, Horace Hooper , lavished enormous effort on its perfection. When Hooper fell into financial difficulties, the Britannica was managed by Sears Roebuck for 18 years —, — In , the vice-president of Sears, Elkan Harrison Powell , assumed presidency of the Britannica ; in , he began the policy of continuous revision.
This was a departure from earlier practice, in which the articles were not changed until a new edition was produced, at roughly year intervals, some articles unchanged from earlier editions. William Benton , then a vice president of the University, provided the working capital for its operation. The stock was divided between Benton and the University, with the University holding an option on the stock. In , near the end of this era, the Britannica celebrated its bicentennial. Under Mortimer J. This second version of the 15th edition continued to be published and revised until the print version.
In the fifth era —present , digital versions have been developed and released on optical media and online. In , the Britannica was bought by Jacqui Safra at well below its estimated value, owing to the company's financial difficulties. One part retained the company name and developed the print version, and the other, Britannica. Since , the two companies have shared a CEO, Ilan Yeshua , who has continued Powell's strategy of introducing new products with the Britannica name. In March , Britannica's president, Jorge Cauz , announced that it would not produce any new print editions of the encyclopaedia, with the 15th edition being the last.
The company will focus only on the online edition and other educational tools. Britannica ' s final print edition was in , a volume set. It contained 30 volumes and 18, pages, with 8, photographs, maps, flags, and illustrations in smaller "compact" volumes. It contained over 40, articles written by scholars from across the world, including Nobel Prize winners. The following is Britannica ' s description of the work: . Written by international experts and scholars, the articles in this collection reflect the standards that have been the hallmark of the leading English-language encyclopedia for over years.
The Britannica was dedicated to the reigning British monarch from to and then, upon its sale to an American partnership, to the British monarch and the President of the United States. With preliminary dissertations on the history of the sciences.
New revisions of the 14th edition appeared every year between and with the exceptions of , and At that time also an online version was offered for paid subscription. In this was offered free, and no revised print versions appeared. The experiment was ended in and a new printed set was issued in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 24 September For other uses, see Britannica disambiguation. General knowledge English-language encyclopaedia. United Kingdom — United States —present. Dewey Decimal. Scotland portal Chicago portal Books portal.
I has viii , , i pages, but 10 unpaginated pages are added between pages and II has iii , , ii pages, but page numbers as well as page numbers were used twice; additionally page numbers were not used. III has iii , , i pages, but page numbers were not used. The New York Times. Retrieved 13 March Archived from the original on 20 October Retrieved 31 May Archived from the original on 9 June The Christian Science Monitor.
Purchasing an Encyclopedia: 12 Points to Consider 5th ed. Booklist Publications, American Library Association. Phoenix, Arizona: Oryx Press. Archived from the original on 5 July Encyclopedias, Atlases, and Dictionaries. New Providence, New Jersey: R.
Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc 15th edition, Index preface ed. Bibcode : neb.. Purchasing an Encyclopedia: 12 Points to Consider 4th ed. Aside from providing an excellent summary of the Britannica's history and early spin-off products, this article also describes the life-cycle of a typical Britannica edition.
Infobase Publishing - Encyclopedia of Careers and Vocational Guidance, 17th Edition, 6-Volume Set
A new edition typically begins with strong sales that decay as the encyclopaedia becomes outdated. When work on a new edition is begun, sales of the old edition stop, just when fiscal needs are greatest: a new editorial staff must be assembled, articles commissioned. Elkan Harrison Powell identified this fluctuation of income as a danger to any encyclopaedia, one he hoped to overcome with continuous revision. Archived from the original on 22 March Retrieved 11 April Archived from the original on 30 August Retrieved 10 April Retrieved 14 November Fox News.
Associated Press. Archived from the original on 28 September Archived from the original on 29 July Retrieved 11 August Archived from the original on 23 August Retrieved 15 November Retrieved 28 September Retrieved 10 February Archived from the original on 14 August Retrieved 27 September Retrieved 26 March AskMeNow , Inc.
Archived from the original on 27 September Britannica Blog. Archived from the original on 5 June Retrieved 19 June Retrieved 30 June Corporate Site".