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Table of contents

The area of the layer that covers with the laser beam is equal to the spot size of the laser, and it surrounds by liquid that absorbs the heat and decreases the temperature of the layer. The temperature has the relationship with the energy density of the laser beam, or it is fluence j.

The effect of wavelength in laser ablation of metal plate When the laser ablation of the metals plate is considered, the wavelength of laser beam is a significant parameter. Because the optical constants of the material depend on wavelength; hence, the metal nanoparticles and metal targets can absorb the energy of laser beam at the particular wavelength.

Metal clusters release in the nano-size from the metal plate and they can provide the condition for absorption of laser energy at each pulse, so the metal target can melt and the generation of nanoparticles becomes faster. Consequently, the higher repetition rate of laser pulses can provide the higher rate of generation of nanoparticles [66].


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Jeon and Yeh were reported about the wavelength dependence of particle size and the forma- tion efficiency in laser ablation [67]. They prepared the silver nanoparticle in inorganic water and organic solution isopropanol using green laser and infrared laser at nanosecond pulse. They achieved that the particle size using the green laser is larger than the particle size using the infrared laser.

Hence, the formation efficiency of nanoparticles using infrared laser was lower than that using the green laser. Moreover, the laser fluence can change the size of the nanoparticle as a function of laser wavelength [65]. Hence, the fragmentation of nanoparticles can improve with enhancement of fluence. The dimension of nanoparticles prepared using infrared photon increases when the laser fluence increases.

Consequently, when the wave- length of laser beam decreases, the ablation efficiency increases with the energy of laser beam. The effect of light absorption with nanoparticles in laser ablation method The absorption of laser beam with nanoparticles is the effective factor of the laser ablation process at high laser fluence to prepare the nanoparticles in an aqueous solution. When the prepared nanoparticles have not high mobility in liquid, they are aggregated near the target.

This effect increases with increasing laser fluence because of the increase in the number of produced nanoparticles.

Therefore, the intensity of laser beam that can reach the metal target is decreased. In addition, the size of the nanoparticles that absorb the incident laser beam decreases because of the laser-induced fragmentation occurs [68, 69]. This phenomenon was reported by Prochazka et al. They achieved the size of nanoparticles decreased when the laser beam interacted with the col- loids during ablation of the metal target [70].


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  • Consequently, the colloidal absorption causes the decreasing of the formation efficiency and the size of nanoparticles. This phenomenon called secondary effect. It can produce the high concentration nanoparticles and can control the formation process, and the size of nanoparticles and especially suppression of the abla- tion efficiency are undesired. Another considerable parameter is a flow-cell system, which is necessary for suppressing the colloidal absorption.

    Nanomaterials synthesized in a microfactory and enhanced performances of optoelectrical devices

    Two colloidal absorption processes can be considered for preparation of metal nanoparticles. The interpulse absorption related to the generation of nanoparticles by the earlier pulses stays in the laser beam path and absorbs the latterly coming pulses. The intrapulse absorption related to particles produced by the earlier part of one pulse immedi- ately absorbs the later part of the same pulse.


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    • Principles and Applications in the Preparation of Nanomaterials, 1st Edition.
    • Pulsed Laser Ablation: Advances and Applications in Nanoparticles and Nanostructuring Thin Films.
    • Laser ablation of silver nanoparticle in liquids Many researchers reported the preparation of silver nanoparticles in organic and inorganic solutions. Silver nanoparticles have biological, thermal, optical, and electrical properties. Hence, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles was presented using chemical and physical methods. Laser ablation of silver plate is an alternative and green method to prepare the Figure 2. Silver nanoparticles were prepared in water, methanol, palm oil [22], coconut oil [71], pomegranate seed oil [72], polyvinyl alcohol PVA [28], and graphene oxide solution [73].

      wire ablation by pulsed laser in liquid - synthesis of ligand-free gold nanoparticles

      Silver nanoparticles were capped by chain fatty acid of oils, and the particle size was about 10 nm. When the ablation time increases, the size of particles decreases. Nanoparticles formed in the spherical shape that was obtained using transmission electron microscope image Figure 2a. The efficiency of the colloidal absorption by silver nanoparticles for , , and nm laser beam depends on localized surface plasmon resonance or the plasmon band around nm Figure 2b.

      Hence, the maximum and minimum efficiency occurred in and nm.

      1st Edition

      Thus, the influence of the colloidal absorption was more prominent for shorter wavelength laser beam, leading to the conclu- sion that the formation efficiency and the size of nanoparticles decrease with decreasing laser wavelength. Laser ablation of gold nanoparticles in liquid Gold nanoparticles Au-NPs have more applications for electronics [74], photodynamic therapy [75], therapeutic agent delivery [76], tumor therapy [77], sensors [78], drugs carriers [79], and medical diagnoses [80]. High activity and high sensitivity of Au-NPs have been fabricated using laser ablation in water [81].

      The final product was used to reclaim the area of glassy graphite electrode for detection of Hg, Pb, Cu, and Co in the low concentration [81]. Gold nanoparticles can absorb and interact with the electrical field of laser beam [79], and Au-NPs generate localized surface plasmon absorption in the range of — nm [82]. The coherent excitation of free electrons causes the surface plasmon band in a colloidal nanopar- ticle [83]. The response of the Au-NPs to an interaction of laser beam depends on particle size, the surrounding material, and nanoparticle concentration [84].

      Hence, the investigation and consideration of green synthesis of gold nanoparticles are intense interest subject in nano- medicine and nanotechnology area. Laser ablation technique is an alternative method for preparation of gold nanoparticles in an aqueous solution. Recently, gold nanoparticles were prepared in graphene oxide and vegetable oils such as pomegranate seed oil [25].

      When gold nanoparticles were fabricated using laser ablation of the gold target, the nanoparticles were formed in the spherical shape Figure 3a that was investigated using transmission electron microscopy. The particle size was in the range of 20—5 nm, and the UV-visible absorption peak appeared about nm Figure 3b. Laser ablation of copper nanoparticles Copper nanoparticles Cu-NPs have more application conductive coatings, lubricants, sin- tering additives [87], and biosensors [88]. Copper nanoparticles are anti-inflammatory [89], reduce gastrointestinal mucosa [90], antioxidative [91], anti-ulcer [92], and are useful in pre- venting skin photosensitivity [93].

      The copper nanoparticles strongly absorb the light beams about nm, arising from the localized surface plasmon resonance LSPR. Recently, the application of vegetable oils such as palm oil [22], coconut oil [71], walnut oil [23], and castor oil [31] for dispersing the nanoparticles was considered for the preparation of nanometals [94].

      Introduction

      These natural compounds contain triglycerides and non-polar long carbon chains that prevent nanoparticles agglomeration through steric repulsion [71]. Many methods based on the reaction of metal ions were presented to prepare copper nanopar- ticles. For example, solution phase [95], photochemical [96], sonochemical [97], and electro- chemical synthesis methods [14] are the famous methods that are utilized for preparation of Cu-NPs in an aqueous solution.

      Laser ablation [98] is a green technique for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles. In the literature, the preparation of copper nanoparticles in distilled water, acetone, and ethanol [99] was reported using laser ablation. Malyavantham et al. Copper nanoparticles were formed in the spherical shape Figure 4a in an aqueous solution. The UV-visible peak arose the localized surface plasmon resonance about nm Figure 4b.

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      The influence of the colloidal absorption on the formation efficiency of copper nanoparticles was also the signifi- cant parameter to prepare copper nanoparticles. The formation efficiencies of Cu-NPs using and nm laser beam were much closer than those of silver nanoparticles because the absorption at nm in copper colloids was lower than that in silver colloids. Compression of silver, gold, and copper nanoparticles The silver, gold, and copper nanoparticles formed in the liquid solution in the spherical shape using pulsed laser ablation of plate, and they have the localized surface plasmon resonance peaks in the visible range; but the copper nanoparticle has tendency to convert copper oxide sooner than gold and silver nanoparticles.

      According to the literature, the gold nanoparticle was formed in the liquids faster than silver and copper nanoparticles []. Gold, silver, and copper nanoparticles have the different biological and medical applications. Gold nanopar- ticles were used as an antibiotic, anti-fungal, and anti-microbial agent.

      Gold nanoparticles were used for drug delivery and anti-cancer. Silver and copper nanoparticles are a strong anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory. Gold and silver nanoparticles were used as optical probes, sensor, and catalyst. Conclusion Laser ablation is a green and simple method for fabrication of the metal nanoparticles without surfactant or chemical addition, and the properties of nanoparticles are unique.

      The wavelength of laser and laser intensity are the significant parameters for production of metal nanoparticles; hence, the formation efficiency of nanoparticles using infrared laser was lower than that using the green laser, and the thermal effect strongly appeared in the case of laser with nanosecond pulse. The particle size was in the range of 5—20 nm, and the nanoparticles were formed in the spherical shape in an aqueous solution using laser abla- tion technique. Influences on nanoparticle production during pulsed laser ablation. Fabrication and characterization of gold nanoparticles by femtosecond laser ablation in an aqueous solution of cyclodex- trins.

      The Journal of Physical Chemistry B. Laser ablation of cobalt and cobalt oxides in liquids: Influence of solvent on composition of prepared nanoparticles. Applied Surface Science. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. Gold nanoparticles: Assembly, supramolecular chemistry, quan- tum-size-related properties, and applications toward biology, catalysis, and nanotech- nology.

      Chemical Reviews. Laser ablation synthesis in solution and size manipulation of noble metal nanoparticles. Shape-controlled synthesis and surface plasmonic properties of metallic nanostructures. MRS Bulletin.

      Associated Data

      Gold nanoparticles in biology: Beyond toxicity to cellular imaging. Accounts of Chemical Research. Mechanistic aspects of ligand exchange in Au nanopar- ticles. Supported gold nanoparticles as catalysts for organic reactions. Chemical Society Reviews.