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It is not surprising that with such a strong degree of similarity that there were many aspects of electrical engineering where their interests and expertise overlapped and converged. Both men, in their own way, would make dramatic contributions to the field of telephony and the two would have legitimate claims to being early pioneers in the field of wireless telegraphy.
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But their interests would best converge with their involvement with the Institution of Electrical Engineers and its committee on electrical standardisation in the s and s. At the core of this lecture, lies an analysis and exploration of the work of Hughes and Preece through their involvement in the Institution of Electrical Engineers' committee on electrical standardisation. In contrast to the standard historical narrative of wireless history, this paper explores the institutional support for, and shaping of, wireless communications in Britain in the late nineteenth and early twentieth-century.
Using three Using three case studies — the Post Office, the Institution of Electrical Engineers, and the Admiralty — I will discuss their differing influences on the technologies and regulations of wireless communications during this formative period in its history.
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Furthermore I will demonstrate how these innovations laid the foundation for the later successes of wireless communications and broadcast radio. In July three Royal Navy ships tested Marconi wireless sets during naval manoeuvres and later that year Marconi wireless sets originally intended for the British Army were instead used by the Royal Navy during the Boer War. In In the Admiralty signed a contract with the Marconi Company, one of the newly-established company's earliest and most important contracts. Henceforth the Admiralty continued to invest in wireless, both with land-based stations and on-board wireless sets.
This process of installation and adoption would continue up to and through World War One. On the surface, the Admiralty's adoption of wireless telegraphy fits into the standard historiography of commercial development and early success of the Marconi Company.
However, I will utilise previously unexplored primary source material to demonstrate a simmering and ongoing tension between commercial interests represented by the Marconi Company and state interests represented by the Admiralty. Parallel to the Admiralty's public dealings with the Marconi Company, it arranged a series of secret interdepartmental conferences to discuss the validity of the company's patents and to argue for stringent domestic wireless controls in order to address concerns about privacy, secrecy, and interference. Increased regulation took the form of national legislation, the Wireless Telegraphy Act, and international agreements, the Radiotelegraphic Congress in Berlin.
It would be this regulation, in parallel with related military demands, rather than commercial concerns that would control and shape the early development of wireless and lay the foundation for its later successes in World War One and beyond. Wireless telecommunications and broadcast radio are traditionally viewed as modes of communications with the early development of wireless telegraphy as a tool of point-to-point communications leading to the later successes of broadcast Wireless telecommunications and broadcast radio are traditionally viewed as modes of communications with the early development of wireless telegraphy as a tool of point-to-point communications leading to the later successes of broadcast radio.
To be sure, telecommunication was the primary use of wireless telecommunications during this formative period in its history but there were other modes of usages for this innovative technology and these one particular alternative use can be used to broaden the canvas of early wireless history. One such alternative use of wireless technology was direction-finding, a usage with origins in the very early history of wireless communications at the beginning of the twentieth-century. Direction-finding was the use of multiple wireless receivers, usually fitted with specially-adapted aerials, to triangulate wireless signals in order to plot the position of a wireless transmitter.
Such usage was considered and developed by numerous wireless pioneers from different nations — Maskelyne, Muirhead, Round,and Marconi in Britain; Blondel and Antom in France, Braun in Germany, and others. The introduction of wireless regulations such as the Wireless Telegraphy Act in Britain and the convention of the Radiotelegraphic Conference meant there was a clear demand for a means of detecting illegal or unlicensed wireless stations.
However the military application would supersede this demand and would be of primary importance in relation to developments of this technology immediately prior to World War One. During the conflict, this technology would be put to effective use in the field of conflict and in the domestic sphere, and would have an influence over the post-war development of beam radio, a means of navigation.
With Britain as the centre of wireless communications developments during this formative period, it is perhaps unsurprising that two of the early, key customers for this technology were British — the Post Office and the Admiralty. In May a pamphlet advertising a system of wireless direction-finding developed by a Frenchman and academic, Professor Antom, reached the John Gavey, then Engineer-in-Chief of the Post Office. Gavey produced a report on the system and, along with a representative from the Admiralty, attended a demonstration in Normandy.
Antom's system had been patented in France, Britain, and possibly elsewhere and in late , Antom's patents were acquired by two Italian electrical engineers, Bellini and Tosi. Through the use of Antom's patents and their own work in the field, Bellini and Tosi went on to manufacture the first commercially-available wireless direction-finding set.
It is interesting to note that despite probably being the first and definitely being the first to patent in this field, Antom has been ignored by and omitted from the history of this innovative branch of wireless technology. Meanwhile Bellini and Tosi would become synonymous with their method of wireless direction-finding and were successful in this field.
As a result, in their patents were acquired by the Marconi Company and the direction-finding sets were further developed by H. Round, a Marconi Company engineer.
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Upon the outbreak of war, Round and another Marconi Company engineer, C. Franklin, were enlisted into the Army and established networks of wireless direction-finding stations, first in France in late and later along the east coast of Britain. The latter was used to locate enemy vessels, both maritime and airborne. The development of this branch of wireless communications illuminates alternative and perhaps unexpected uses of technologies, examines a technology that straddles the civilian and military sphere, and invites a closer examination of patenting as a means of establishing the priority of an invention.
The sinking of RMS Titanic early in the morning of 15 April less than three hours after hitting an iceberg in the middle of the cold North Atlantic ocean is considered one of most dramatic events of the twentieth-century. The sinking The sinking of the Titanic and the subsequent rescue of passengers, due in most part to the use of wireless, is considered a seminal moment in history and one which propelled wireless into public consciousness. Of the passengers and crew, survived and were rescued by the RMS Carpathia who had responded to the Titanic's wireless distress calls.
The dramatic maritime disaster along with the subsequent publicity and national inquiry elevated the status of the Marconi Company, who owned and operated the wireless sets onboard the Titanic. Marconi … and his marvellous invention. I will also show how in the aftermath of the tragic sinking of the Titanic, wireless came to be seen as a necessary tool of modern communication, especially in relation of maritime use.
The singing arc was initially developed as a form of electrical oscillator and lighting by English physicist, William Duddell, and was further adapted into the first wireless transmitter to produce continuous waves by Danish physicist Valdemar Poulsen. Bifurcation Chaos 20, Germany was left with just one cable, but even that was under British control: any message sent through it could be Germany was left with just one cable, but even that was under British control: any message sent through it could be intercepted and read by Britain.
The impact of this was felt later in the war with the British interception of the controversial Zimmermann telegram in In return, Germany tried to destroy Allied telegraph cables in the Pacific and Indian Oceans by attacking telegraph stations and cables at Fanning Island and the Cocos Islands in late Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley was one of the foremost English physicists of the early twentieth century and was an active member of the Royal Society during this time.
Probably best remembered for his immense contributions to chemistry and atomic physics in the years immediately prior to the outbreak of World War One, there is little doubt that Moseley would have been nominated as a FRS if he had survived the war. Instead this talk will focus on the lesser-known period of just under a year between October and August when Moseley served as a Signals Officer in the Royal Engineers. Upon the outbreak of World War One, the British government quickly realised what a valuable and dangerous tool wireless telegraphy could be.
They immediately sealed up the transmitters of the limited number of wireless amateurs licensed They immediately sealed up the transmitters of the limited number of wireless amateurs licensed and operating in Britain. However, this is not the end of the story of wireless amateurs, far from it! They also filled the gap while the Marconi Company hastily trained up wireless operators for wartime usage.
They also listened out for German spies using wireless to send secret messages but this was more myth than reality. The forgotten history of the Albert Hall, though, makes hiring it for a science lecture and using the occasion to publicise a survey which shows that London children are uninterested in science, particularly poignant.
Prince Albert staunchly promoted innovation in science, manufacturing and agriculture during the 21 years that he was married to Queen Victoria. The pinnacle of his achievement, the Great Exhibition of in Hyde Park, closed in profit. With his encouragement, a site just across the road in Kensington was leased for years at a shilling a year.
It was to host science conversaziones and agricultural, industrial and scientific exhibitions. Albert died in , a victim of typhoid. Within a year, the Society of Telegraph Engineers booked the hall to demonstrate a Morse code link with Persia. In there was an exhibition of electrical lighting apparatus, followed over the next decade by exhibitions on fisheries, health and inventions.
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In the hall was the scene for the first gramophone concert. A packed house of people heard the recorded voice of the famous Madame Patti, who had given her farewell concert in the same hall a few days earlier The sound was reproduced by an Auxetophone Sound Box, brainchild of Charles Parsons, who also invented the turbines used to generate electricity. This was before the days of valves and amplifiers, and he used compressed air to amplify the sound from the gramophone. Weinheim, Germany: VCH, Switiching Circuits and Logical Design John Wiley and Sons London Switching Circuit diagram circuit PW Caleb Pirtle III Engineering the World: Stories from the First 75 years of Texas Instruments In photographs and anecdotes, the book tells TI's history of innovation in products and technologies, including the development of the first commercial silicon transistors, the first integrated circuits, and the first electronic hand-held calculators.
The fFrench made an unsuccessful attempt to breach the Isthmus of Panama and build a canal linking the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Twenty-five years later the U. It also includes information on the fundamental principles of radio, the principle of the superheterodyne, and servicing the cathode ray tube.
Legacies Campbell, Mary, ed. Yost Computer: A History of the Information Machine History of the computer from introduction for government and business purposes, to development of personal computers and software, to growth of Internet and socal networks. Hawthorn Books Inc. Dallas, TX: Heritage Press, Milano: Franco Agneli, Turning Points in Western Technology: A Study of Technology, Science, and History A history of important events in technology and science from the 17th century until the 20th century. University of Pennsylvania; Doctoral Dissertation, Early Modern Europe.
Scientific Revolution. Steam Power. Bernard Technology in World History, Vol. Carlson, W. Bernard Tesla: Inventor of the Electrical Age Scholarly biography focusing on Tesla's inventions and his promotion of them. Bernard Ed. Technology in World History, Volume 1, Prehistoric and Ancient World First volume in a seven volume series for youth on the history of technology, showing how historical change stimulates new technologies and how technological innovation impacts the course of history.
Technology in World History, Volume 2, Early Empires Second volume in a seven volume series for youth on the history of technology, showing how historical change stimulates new technologies and how technological innovation impacts the course of history. Technology in World History, Volume 3, The Medieval World Third volume in a seven volume series for youth on the history of technology, showing how historical change stimulates new technologies and how technological innovation impacts the course of history.
Technology in World History, Volume 4, Traditional Cultures Fourth volume in a seven volume series for youth on the history of technology, showing how historical change stimulates new technologies and how technological innovation impacts the course of history. Technology in World History, Volume 7, Reference Volume and Set Index Seventh volume in a seven volume series for youth on the history of technology, showing how historical change stimulates new technologies and how technological innovation impacts the course of history.
New York: W. Guide to U.