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The immune system defends our body against invaders, such as viruses, bacteria , and foreign bodies. The white blood cells are a key.
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This protection is called immunity. Everyone is born with innate or natural immunity, a type of general protection. Many of the germs that affect other species don't harm us. For example, the viruses that cause leukemia in cats or distemper in dogs don't affect humans.

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Innate immunity also includes the external barriers of the body, like the skin and mucous membranes like those that line the nose, throat, and gastrointestinal tract , which are the first line of defense in preventing diseases from entering the body. The second kind of protection is adaptive or active immunity, which develops throughout our lives. Adaptive immunity involves the lymphocytes and develops as people are exposed to diseases or immunized against diseases through vaccination. Passive immunity is "borrowed" from another source and it lasts for a short time. For example, antibodies in a mother's breast milk give a baby temporary immunity to diseases the mother has been exposed to.

This can help protect the baby against infection during the early years of childhood. Everyone's immune system is different. Some people never seem to get infections, whereas others seem to be sick all the time. As people get older, they usually become immune to more germs as the immune system comes into contact with more and more of them. That's why adults and teens tend to get fewer colds than kids — their bodies have learned to recognize and immediately attack many of the viruses that cause colds.

Immunodeficiencies happen when a part of the immune system is missing or not working properly. Immunodeficiencies also can be acquired through infection or produced by drugs these are sometimes called secondary immunodeficiencies. Immunodeficiencies can affect B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, or phagocytes. Examples of primary immunodeficiencies that can affect kids and teens are:. Acquired or secondary immunodeficiencies usually develop after someone has a disease, although they can also be the result of malnutrition, burns, or other medical problems. Certain medicines also can cause problems with the functioning of the immune system.

In autoimmune disorders, the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's healthy organs and tissues as though they were foreign invaders. Tumor antigens can trigger adaptive immunity. Cells, such as macrophages, dendritic cells and B cells, that can process protein antigens into peptides. These peptides can then be presented along with major histocompatibility complex to T-cell receptors on the surface of the cell.

Figure 4. Special proteins created by white blood cells that can kill or weaken infection-causing organisms. Antibodies travel through the blood stream looking for specific pathogens. A basophil is a type of phagocytic immune cell that has granules.

Diagram of the Human Immune System (Infographic)

Inflammation causes basophils to release histamine during allergic reactions. A B lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell that develops in the bone marrow and makes antibodies. Activated B cells that produce antibodies. Only one type of antibody is produced per plasma B cell. Interferon-alpha2b is a cytokine produced in a laboratory using recombinant DNA technology and is used in the treatment of malignant melanoma. Dendritic cells are antigen-presenting cells APCs. Antigen is combined with major histocompatibility complex and presented on a dendritic cell to active T and B lymphocytes.

An eosinophil is a type of immune cell leukocyte, or white blood cell.


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They help fight infection or cause inflammation. Granulocytes including eosinophils, neutrophils and basophils are a type of white blood cell that releases toxic materials, such as antimicrobial agents, enzymes, nitrogen oxides and other proteins, during an attack from a pathogen. The primary effector cell of innate immunity; the first responders of the immune system. They interact with signals from other cells activating and inhibitory. Type of white blood cell that is involved with the immune system.

T lymphocytes mature in the thymus and differentiate into cytotoxic, memory, helper and regulatory T cells. The T cells are grown and modified in a lab to include special receptors chimeric antigen receptor that can recognize and attack cancer cells. Activated cytotoxic T cells can migrate through blood vessel walls and non-lymphoid tissues. They can also travel across the blood brain barrier.


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  4. Derived from activated cytotoxic T cells, memory T cells are long-lived and antigen-experienced. One memory T cell can produce multiple cytotoxic T cells. After activated cytotoxic T cells attack the pathogen, the memory T cells hang around to mitigate any recurrence. Helper T cells secrete cytokines that help B cells differentiate into plasma cells. These cells also help to activate cytotoxic T cells and macrophages. Lymphocytes are immune cells found in the blood and lymph tissue. T and B lymphocytes are the two main types.

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    Macrophages are large white blood cells that reside in tissues that specialize in engulfing and digesting cellular debris, pathogens and other foreign substances in the body. Large white blood cells that reside in the blood stream that specialize in engulfing and digesting cellular debris, pathogens and other foreign substances in the body. Monocytes become macrophages.

    When immature myeloid cells cannot differentiate into mature myeloid cells, due to conditions like cancer, expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells occurs, and the T-cell response can be suppressed. A type of white blood cell, granulocyte, and phagocyte that aids in fighting infection. Neutrophils kill pathogens by ingesting them. Papayas also have a digestive enzyme called papain that has anti-inflammatory effects.

    Papayas have decent amounts of potassium , B vitamins, and folate, all of which are beneficial to your overall health. Like papayas, kiwis are naturally full of a ton of essential nutrients, including folate, potassium, vitamin K , and vitamin C. It helps improve symptoms of a cold and also helps protect you from getting sick in the first place. Poultry, such as chicken and turkey, is high in vitamin B About 3 ounces of light turkey or chicken meat contains 40 to 50 percent of your daily recommended amount of B Vitamin B-6 is an important player in many of the chemical reactions that happen in the body.

    Stock or broth made by boiling chicken bones contains gelatin, chondroitin, and other nutrients helpful for gut healing and immunity. Sunflower seeds are full of nutrients, including phosphorous , magnesium , and vitamin B Vitamin E is important in regulating and maintaining immune system function. Other foods with high amounts of vitamin E include avocados and dark leafy greens. Too much zinc can actually inhibit immune system function. Variety is the key to proper nutrition. Eating right is a great start, and there are other things you can do to protect you and your family from the flu, cold, and other illnesses.

    Start with these flu prevention basics and then read these seven tips for flu-proofing your home. A healthy diet is key to flu prevention and a working immune system. Check out these 10 easy-to-make juices that carry the essential nutrients. The immune system is a complex fighting system powered by five liters of blood and lymph.

    Learn more about how your immune system protects you. Eating the right foods can have major benefits when you're sick. Here are the 15 best foods to eat when sick with the cold, flu, nausea or anything….

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    Learn what you can do to prevent colds and the flu. But when you've missed every backyard BBQ and night…. Eating garlic provides many health benefits, including improved immune function. It can help prevent the common cold and the flu. The common cold is the most frequent infectious disease in humans. Many people believe that vitamin C can help prevent or even cure colds.

    White blood cells

    Learn about strategies to keep from getting the flu, and how to recover quickly if you do get the bug. Though a head cold is usually a mild illness, it can still impact your daily life.